Green line closures

Written by Afewepxy Nrlotnlh
Full Green Line closures From Nov. 27 to Dec. 3, Green Line.

Story by Ida Domingo. • 11h • 1 min read. The summer shutdown has arrived! Starting June 1, Metro will close several Red Line stations for construction. Metro's …Speed Restrictions Update: On Blue Line, we used a series of weeknight diversions to improve tracks for faster, safer service before @MassDOT Sumner Tunnel closure. Since 3/24, we've shortened ...2 min. 0. A segment of Metro's Red Line in D.C. and Maryland will close for three months starting Saturday, forcing thousands of residents to rethink their commutes, though free shuttle buses ...Courtesy of the MBTA. A nine-day closure of the central segments of the Green Line in Boston has removed 12 more slow zones - two more than the T had initially planned to tackle. The closure affected the central tunnels of the Green Line between North Station and Kenmore Square, where all four branches of the light rail line converge.NAPA, Calif., Sept. 19, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Nomacorc, a member of Vinventions™ and the world's leading producer of premium wine closures, unveils a new category of closures with unparalleled ...Feb 20, 2024 · Green Line closures start this week. Here are some alternative travel options. Seeking shelter: A new day-shelter is opening at 9 a.m. today in Chelsea, as the state’s family shelter system ...Continue reading. South Station Back Bay Lansdowne. 39 bus. close daily from 8:45 p.m. through the end of service T says were constructed incorrectly. 87 bus 86 91 CT2. also encouraging Framingham ...Still, the closure means that Green Line trolleys will go no farther than North Station, affecting commuters who take the MBTA from East Cambridge into Boston, and vice versa. According to the ...On March 26, a construction worker was killed during a partial collapse of the Government Center parking garage in the Haymarket area of the city. According to the Boston Fire Department, the ...I didn't know that," said one MBTA rider who was surprised by the Green Line closures. Those planning to get from point A to point B on the Green Line are having to go with plan C: change from ...The closures, for repairs and upgrades, are part of a long MBTA campaign to remove slow zones on the subway system. After adjusting their commutes for January, the brief relief of having the Green ...He said a planned closure of the Green Line from North Station through Kenmore to Heath and Babcock to address the tunnel issues is scheduled to begin on Nov. 27. Green Line tunnels run under ...Beginning, Saturday, June 1, through Saturday, August 31, Metro will close the Glenmont, Wheaton, Forest Glen, and Silver Spring stations for construction and maintenance, in coordination with a planned closure for the Maryland Transit Administration's Purple Line Project. In addition, the Takoma Station will also be closed from June 1 ...Most popular fares Subway One-Way $2.40 Local Bus One-Way $1.70 Monthly LinkPass $90.00 Commuter Rail One-Way Zones 1A - 10 $2.40 - $13.25METRO Green Line Extension. Green Line Extension Project Office. Park Place West Building, Suite 500. 6465 Wayzata Boulevard. St. Louis Park, MN 55426. Contact Us. A map showing current conditions and detours for trails that are impacted by Green Line Extension LRT Project construction.Orange Line service will be will be suspended between Ruggles and North Station during the weekends of Jan. 28-29, Feb. 4-5 and Feb. 18-19. Orange Line train service will also be suspended between ...Full Green Line closures. From Nov. 27 to Dec. 3, Green Line service will be suspended on the B branch between North Station and Babcock Street, on the C and D branches between North Station and ...Red Line service will be suspended between Alewife to Harvard from Feb. 5 to Feb. 14. The Green Line will be shut down again between Copley to several stations from Feb. 20 to March 8. The MBTA ...Green Bay, Wisconsin is a vibrant city with plenty of resources available to its residents and visitors. From outdoor activities to cultural attractions, there is something for eve...Green Line Extension. will also see periodic closures as crews work to fix the. narrow tracks. The Union Square and Medford/Tufts branches will be shut down beyond North Station on the following ...A portion of the Green Line's B branch will shut down for 12 days in July so crews can "fully replace" more than 2,000 feet of track at the Packard's Corner ... During the closure, the ...Planned closures on the MBTA’s Green Line D Branch for infrastructure improvements will begin Saturday, Sept, 24, the MBTA said Friday. There will be three nine-day full-access closures of the branch on a rolling basis through Oct. 30. It is part of ongoing work to install the Green Line Train Protection System, a series of track …There are no Green Line closures currently planned for June, and you'd be able to get a train downtown every 10-ish minutes most of the time during normal operations. except for planned closures it usually runs every 7-13 minutes (maybe longer on weekends), depending on the stop about 20 minutes to Park Street.The MBTA announced Friday that it is expanding the evening and overnight closures of the Green Line Extension through Dec. 17. Since Monday, Nov. 27, officials have closed the extension around 8: ...For the Green Line’s E and D branches, the shutdowns will take place on weekends and on some weekday nights starting at 8:45 p.m., the MBTA said. The closures will take place on the weekend of ...Multiple Red Line closures coming this month will overlap with Green Line shutdowns slated to begin Feb. 20 as the MBTA continues its aggressive campaign of repairs and upgrades, officials said ...Train service on the Green Line Extension has been closing early at 8:45 p.m. since Nov. 27. The post MBTA: Green Line Extension repairs will not be completed on time appeared first on Boston.com.Green computing is important to society due to the prolific manufacturing and use of electronic equipment in modern societies.Construction hotline. Call the 24-hour hotline for problems such as blocked access to business or residential areas, improper traffic sign placement or parking issues: 612-373-3933. For emergencies, always call 911. For general questions or comments about Southwest LRT, contact your Community Outreach Coordinator.The Green Line went through two rounds of closures in January, from Jan. 3 until Jan. 12 and then from Jan. 16 through Jan. 28, as part of the MBTA’s campaign to remove slow zones on subway ...Several other service changes on the T were announced, including a suspension of the Green Line between Lechmere an Union Square from July 18 to Aug. 28 and closures on all Green Line branches the ...2 min. 0. A segment of Metro's Red Line in D.C. and Maryland will close for three months starting Saturday, forcing thousands of residents to rethink their commutes, though free shuttle buses ...Aug 18, 2022 · The Orange Line may be shutting down first, but it won't be the only train closure to impact commuters Monday. The Green Line will be closed north of the Government Center Monday through Sept. 18. Handout. A map showing the Green Line shuttle route from Boston's Government Center north during the line's partial shutdown Aug. 22-Sept. 18.Construction hotline. Call the 24-hour hotline for problems such as blocked access to business or residential areas, improper traffic sign placement or parking issues: 612-373-3933. For emergencies, always call 911. For general questions or comments about Southwest LRT, contact your Community Outreach Coordinator.I didn't know that," said one MBTA rider who was surprised by the Green Line closures. Those planning to get from point A to point B on the Green Line are having to go with plan C: change from ...The work Jan 3-12 and Jan. 16-28, also significantly shortened a 17th restriction between the Haymarket and Government Center stations. As a result, Green Line restrictions have been reduced from 38 covering 4.35 miles as of Jan. 2 to 22 covering 2.26 miles as of Monday, according to the MBTA's speed restriction dashboard.METRO Green Line Extension. Green Line Extension Project Office. Park Place West Building, Suite 500. 6465 Wayzata Boulevard. St. Louis Park, MN 55426. Contact Us. A map showing current conditions and detours for trails that are impacted by Green Line Extension LRT Project construction.The closure of the North Station Green Line stop means that users of the north side commuter rail network will have no subway connections when they arrive in Boston (before the pandemic, North Station saw over 18,000 daily boardings on commuter rail trains).Featured Construction Photo. A one-day full road closure of West 21st Street at the rail crossing (between Thomas Avenue S and Upton Avenue S), weather permitting, is scheduled for Saturday, June 1 starting at 9:00 AM and will finish around 8:00 PM. An after-hours permit by the City of Minneapolis has been granted for this work.We recognize the challenges this poses to our riders, and please know we are working to identify a solution as quickly as possible. In the meantime, Government Center Station, which is fully accessible and serves the Blue Line, is under a quarter-mile from Bowdoin Station. Updated: 6/13/2023 10:12 AM EDT. Alerts for MBTA Blue Line Subway.I didn't know that," said one MBTA rider who was surprised by the Green Line closures. Those planning to get from point A to point B on the Green Line are having to go with plan C: change from ...The Orange Line will close starting Friday, August 19, and the Green Line will close from Government Center to Union Square station starting Monday, August 22. Since the MBTA announced these closures, City of Somerville staff have been meeting daily with MBTA and State officials to support the implementation of alternative travel options and ...A train pulls into the new Union Square MBTA station on August 6, 2022. A 25-day partial closure of the Green Line between Lechmere and Union Square began Monday, Sept. 18, 2023.Service disruptions started on almost all branches of the MBTA's Green Line on Monday to allow crews to make rail, ties and tunnel repairs. Those planning to get from point A to point B on the Green Line are having to go with plan C: change from train to shuttle. "It's just frustrating, especially after a long weekend and trying to get back to ...The closures, for repairs and upgrades, are part of a long MBTA campaign to remove slow zones on the subway system. After adjusting their commutes for January, the brief relief of having the Green ...May 17 - 21, 2024. Details: See the detailed detour and construction map. Location: 5 Avenue between 2 and 4 Street S.W. Project type: CDHI Utility Relocation. Impact: Sidewalk closures.Construction to make way for the Green Line LRT in Calgary's southeast is entering its next stage, but will mean traffic impacts for people in the area. Adam MacVicar reports. Read more:The line reopened after an earlier suspension but is now running with delays while Bethnal Green Tube station is now back open. Tickets are being accepted on London Buses, Elizabeth Line and ...Feb 20, 2024 · Green Line closures start this week. Here are some alternative travel options. Seeking shelter: A new day-shelter is opening at 9 a.m. today in Chelsea, as the state’s family shelter system ...What comes after these first Green Line closures? The Green Line will close again between North Station and Kenmore, Babcock Street, and Heath Street from Jan. 3 to 12, according to the T ...The closures would ultimately affect nearly every piece of the MBTA rapid transit system, with the exception of the new Green Line Extension and the Ashmont and Mattapan branches of the Red Line, which the T already repaired during a 16-day closure last month. Work begins on Green Line with 9-day closure later this monthA 6-week long closure that transportation officials had planned for the Green Line Extension this summer has been reduced to 25 days, with work beginning in mid September.I didn't know that," said one MBTA rider who was surprised by the Green Line closures. Those planning to get from point A to point B on the Green Line are having to go with plan C: change from ...The streets of Boston are being radically transformed for 30 days as the MBTA Orange Line and part of the Green Line are shut down into mid-September, with shuttle buses being brought in to help replace trains. The closures will condense years’ worth of badly needed repair work, officials have said, but from Friday until Sept. 18, it …Red Line. Full Schedule. Green Line. The Green Line has closures scheduled* for: July 31 - August 9, 2024: Boston College - Kenmore. October 28 - November 2, 2024: Cleveland Circle - St. Mary's. *Subject to change. Changes will be updated here as they are announced.Local News. The Green Line’s E branch is closed. Here’s why, and how to get around it. The C branch previously closed for 12 days, while the entire Orange Line will shut down for 30 days...By Staff Reports • Published February 20, 2024 • Updated on February 20, 2024 at 9:45 am. NBC10 Boston. Another wave of partial Green Line shutdowns start Tuesday to allow work on slow zones, according to the MBTA. Shuttle buses will replace services between Copley and Babcock Street on the B branch, Copley and Cleveland Circle on the C ...All Green Line service will be suspended between North Station and Kenmore beginning Monday and lasting through Dec. 5, according to the MBTA. That suspension will extend to Lechmere Station Dec. 4 and 5. During that time, the T recommends that would-be Green Line riders use the Orange Line to get around downtown.Beginning on Saturday, July 22, Greenbelt, College Park-U of Md, Hyattsville Crossing, and West Hyattsville stations on the Green Line will be closed for planned construction to improve rail network technologies. The stations are scheduled to reopen on Tuesday, September 5. Free shuttles will be available during the station closures.The Globe spoke to about a dozen passengers Tuesday who were surprised and frustrated with the Feb. 20 closure scheduled soon after a long January without Green Line service. The closures, for ...C (Green Line) Line partial closure, 5 Freeway widening, Metro active transportation plan, and more. Ongoing through Sunday 9/24 - C Line overhead wire maintenance construction means a month-plus of closures and bus bridges at the line's southwest end.Details at The Source.; Monday 8/28 - The I-5 Consortium Cities Joint …Metro riders on the Green Line to northern Prince George’s County, Maryland, will experience some station closures through the end of summer. The transit agency announced that its West ...The MBTA Green Line D branch closed on Sept. 24, commencing the first of three nine-day closures to allow for upgrades and maintenance. The temporary closure eliminates service between Riverside and Kenmore, according to a Sept. 16 press release from the MBTA. In lieu of the Green Line closures, riders can use free shuttle buses between Riverside and Kenmore.For the Green Line's E and D branches, the shutdowns will take place on weekends and on some weekday nights starting at 8:45 p.m., the MBTA said. The closures will take place on the weekend of ...NEWTON, MA — The last of three 9-day closures of the Green Line D Branch in Newton will conclude on Saturday, Oct. 29, two days ahead of schedule. The completion of these closures will conclude ...Posted on September 9, 2022. Today, the MBTA announced that 69% of the work taking place along the Orange Line during the 30-day closure is complete and 60 new Orange Line cars are available for the restart of service. "With less than 10 days remaining in this ambitious project, the work crews up and down the line have us in a great position ...The Green Line Extension ongoing regauging work, which began in late November and already required one extension, will now continue into 2024. Skip to content NOWCAST NewsCenter 5 at 11B Line construction in the West Lake Street bridge area is expected to ramp up later this summer with major activities such as nearby bus station construction, sidewalk and median work, and roadway resurfacing. Expect traffic impacts throughout the majority of 2024, especially during peak commuting hours.the second round of the green line shutdown is from january 16th until the 28th, reporting li GET LOCAL BREAKING NEWS ALERTS The latest breaking updates, delivered straight to your email inbox.May 25, 2024 · Monday thru Friday: 6:30 AM - 8 PM Saturday thru Sunday: 8 AM - 4 PM. Main: 617-222-3200. 711 for TTY callers; VRS for ASL callers.For two and a half weeks, starting Tuesday, February 20, the MBTA will suspend Green Line service on sections of the B, C, and D Branches, with free, accessible shuttle buses replacing T service. The work will conclude Friday, March 8, with the closures allowing the agency to conduct critical track work that should improve reliability and …Get to know the Green Line. Phase 1 of the Green Line builds 18 km of new light rail transit from Shepard to Eau Claire. Main construction starts in 2024 and will take approximately six years to build. Green Line will carry 55,000 riders on opening day and provide direct access to 190,000 jobs in downtown, Quarry Park and industrial areas.Sep 25, 2022 · Shuttle buses will replace the Green Line service between Riverside and Kenmore (skipping Beaconsfield due to narrow roads) between Sept. 24-Oct. 2, Oct. 8-Oct. 16, and Oct. 22-Oct. 30.The Green Line extension is a project with a long and winding origin story. The effort to expand the reach of the MBTA's subway system into Somerville and Medford descended from the Big Dig, the ...Sep 17, 2022 · The announcement of the Green Line D Branch rolling closures comes as the T works to wrap up a 30-day shutdown of the Orange Line as well as the Green Line’s Union Branch.By Asher Klein • Published November 16, 2023. The latest round of MBTA train and bus service changes was announced Thursday, including a nearly monthlong closure of the Green and Orange lines in ...There are no Green Line closures currently planned for June, and you'd be able to get a train downtown every 10-ish minutes most of the time during normal operations. except for planned closures it usually runs every 7-13 minutes (maybe longer on weekends), depending on the stop about 20 minutes to Park Street.Dec 22, 2023 · The MBTA on Thursday offered good news and bad news for Green Line riders who have spent the better part of the past month battling shutdowns and slow zones.. The good: The recent D Branch closure ... The Green Line, also known as Route 203 is a light rail (LRT) line under construction in Calgary,

6 days ago · North Station Escalator 385 (Valenti Way to Orange Line, Green Line lobby) unavailable from Tue Jun 11 through Wed Jun 12 due to maintenance Escalator Closure Prudential Escalator 151 (Lobby to Prudential Center) unavailable due to maintenanceUpdated: 5/27/2024 1:52 PM EDT. Escalator Closure. Prudential Escalator 151 (Lobby to Prudential Center) unavailable due to maintenance. Call Us. Official website of the MBTA -- schedules, maps, and fare information for Greater Boston's public transportation …In today’s rapidly changing retail landscape, it’s important for consumers and industry insiders alike to stay informed about store closures. Understanding the reasons behind store...Several other service changes on the T were announced, including a suspension of the Green Line between Lechmere an Union Square from July 18 to Aug. 28 and closures on all Green Line branches the ...The $1 billion project to extend the C Line, formerly known as the Green Line, would connect the South Bay to Southern California's transit network. Construction has resumed again at the long ...May 17 - 21, 2024. Details: See the detailed detour and construction map. Location: 5 Avenue between 2 and 4 Street S.W. Project type: CDHI Utility Relocation. Impact: Sidewalk closures.NBC10 Boston. A disabled train caused delays on the MBTA's Green Line on Tuesday morning. The MBTA first reported around 10 a.m. that delays of 10 minutes could be expected due to a disabled train near Boylston. They said trains might stand by at stations. About 15 minutes later, the T provided an update saying delays had increased to 20 minutes.The latest round of MBTA train and bus service changes was announced Thursday, including a nearly monthlong closure of the Green and Orange lines in downtown Boston. The announcement comes as the troubled agency said it needs $24.5 billion to bring all its systems into working order. Some of the closures, including the Orange and Green line closures at Haymarket…The Green Line went through two rounds of closures in January, from Jan. 3 until Jan. 12 and then from Jan. 16 through Jan. 28, as part of the MBTA’s campaign to remove slow zones on subway ...Feb 20, 2024 · The closures, for repairs and upgrades, are part of a long MBTA campaign to remove slow zones on the subway system. After adjusting their commutes for January, the brief relief of having the Green ...Green Line shutdown. An even longer shutdown is planned this summer for the northern end of the Green Line later in the summer. Between July 22 and Sept. 4, Metro will close Green Line stations ...Published April 24, 2023 3:04 p.m. PDT. Share. The STM resumed regular service on the Green Line Tuesday after overnight inspections determined the damage discovered on the tunnel was "superficial ...As of Thursday, Jan. 25, there are 143 speed restrictions on the MBTA rail transit network, including 56 on the Red Line and 34 on the Green Line. The commuter-rail service suspensions are set for the Fitchburg line, between Littleton/Route 495 and Alewife on Feb. 304, and the Lowell line in its entirely on Feb. 10-11.Posted on July 28, 2023. Today, the MBTA announced the upcoming successful completion of the 12-day full-access closure that will deliver critical safety and reliability upgrades to the Green Line’s B Branch. During the closure, crews completed full-depth track replacement at Blandford Street, Packard’s Corner, and between Harvard Avenue ...The upcoming shutdowns will include segments of all four subway lines, starting with the Green Line, which the T plans to shut down between North Station and Kenmore Station from Nov. 27 to Dec. 5 ...Green Line D Schedules & Maps Alerts 2. Stations & Departures. Call Us. Information & Support Monday thru Friday: 6:30 AM - 8 PM Saturday thru Sunday: 8 AM - 4 PM. Main: 617-222-3200. 711 for TTY callers; VRS for ASL callers Emergency Contacts 24 hours, 7 days a week. Transit Police: 617-222-1212.Two days after announcing a four-week shutdown on the Orange Line, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority said Friday it is closing a portion of the …To the news: The B stands for bus: Today marks the beginning of the MBTA’s 12-day shutdown of the Green Line’s B branch. The branch will be closed through next Friday so crews can accelerate ...Green Line Closures Updates . 🤔 Question Have there been any updates on the Green Line closures? I have looked on their website and socials but there doesn’t seem to be any updates on the progress of the closures. I remember them saying that it was scheduled to end 12/4-5 but is that still the case?Green Line trains will operate every eight minutes (every 10 minutes after 9:30 p.m.) Note: If 7000-series trains remain out of service, trains will operate less frequently . PHASE TWO: Oct. 23, 2022 - May 2023 . All stations will reopen but the Yellow Line will remain out of serviceMaintenance work to widen tracks on the Green Line Extension will not be completed until at least late January and will require several more stretches of disruption to riders.February 21, 2024. 2. With portions of the Green Line 's B, C, and D branches closed for track work until March 8, commuters are being offered credit to use Bluebikes during the MBTA' s ...The Green Line north of Government Center is scheduled to be shuttered between the Government Center and Union Square stations from Aug. 22 to Sept. 19, a closure that's intended to facilitate ...In addition to the ongoing Yellow Line shutdown, a major Green Line shutdown will disrupt Metro service this weekend. On Saturday and Sunday, there will be no trains between Navy Yard and Mt ...This year, there have been five total closures along the Green Line: a 12-day full-access closure on the B and C Branches, a 16-day full-access closure on the E Branch, and two nine-day closures on the D Branch. With the completion of this third and final closure, construction will conclude on the Green Line for 2022.Green Line Construction,Home Improvement,Contractor NYC,ContractorNYC.us,homeimprovement,staten island,brooklyn,ny city, contractor,carpenter,tile,door,handyman, Home ...Multiple Metrorail stations on the Glenmont end of the Red Line will close from June 1 to Aug. 31 for the construction of the Purple Line light rail and repairs. The …Featured Construction Photo. A one-day full road closure of West 21st Street at the rail crossing (between Thomas Avenue S and Upton Avenue S), weather permitting, is scheduled for Saturday, June 1 starting at 9:00 AM and will finish around 8:00 PM. An after-hours permit by the City of Minneapolis has been granted for this work.The most significant Green Line closures this month will last from Jan. 3-12 and Jan. 16-28, breaking for three days in between in honor of Martin Luther King Jr. Day.The closure of the North Station Green Line stop means that users of the north side commuter rail network will have no subway connections when they arrive in Boston (before the pandemic, North Station saw over 18,000 daily boardings on commuter rail trains).December 1, 2023. 5. T riders are now more than halfway through a 9-day downtown Green Line closure, and needless to say, the experience of navigating trolleys, shuttles, and subway transfers has ...The $1 billion project to extend the C Line, formerly known as the Green Line, would connect the South Bay to Southern California's transit network. Construction has resumed again at the long ...Oct 28, 2022 · NEWTON, MA — The last of three 9-day closures of the Green Line D Branch in Newton will conclude on Saturday, Oct. 29, two days ahead of schedule. The completion of these closures will conclude ...WCVB Boston. Green Line MBTA closures begin today. Story by Shaun Ganley• 1mo. MBTA Green Line commuters in Boston will see significant stretches throughout the month of January with no trolley ...Early April The Green Line Extension project has closed two streets in Somerville that affect driving and bus routes to/from Cambridge. 2018. After some re-design and cost cutting measures to bring the project in line with the budget, and a successful re-bidding of the project, Green Line Extension began construction in phases.Workers repaired those stretches in recent weeks, allowing the T to resume standard speeds across the Green Line Extension. The project's construction standards require a width between the rails ...The Green Line will close again between North Station and Kenmore, Babcock Street, and Heath Street from Jan. 3 to 12, according to the T, followed by additional disruptions on the Red, Orange ...19 May 2021. Blue Line, a new range of closures made from recycled plastic. The Nomacorc Blue Line range is a new category of closures where 50% of the raw material comes from a ISCC+ certified recycled plastic using a “ Mass Balance ” approach. The latter has already proved its worth in sustainable development for industries dealing with ...Specifically, the MBTA plans to halt trains on the entire Orange line starting Friday night, followed by the northern part of the Green Line starting first thing Monday. The MBTA plans to offer ...Metro riders on the Green Line to northern Prince George's County, Maryland, will experience some station closures through the end of summer. The transit agency announced that its West ...The newly opened Green Line Extension will close later this month for four weeks. Boston 25 News. Green Line shutdown to overlap with closure of Orange Line. Colin A. Young, State House News Service.If you take the Green Line's B line, trolleys will be replaced by free shuttle buses between Kenmore and Boston College from July 17-28 — and there'll be some road detours around Packard's ...The state government has unveiled a brand-new metro station at Waterloo, the first stop on the City and Soutwest metro line to finish construction. The Waterloo Metro station in the city's inner ...BROOKLINE, MA — The last of three 9-day closures of the Green Line D Branch in Brookline concluded Saturday, Oct. 29, two days ahead of schedule. The completion of these closures concludes ...5 Avenue S.W. - Three lane closure. August 14 - late September*. The three middle lanes of 5 Avenue between 2 and 3 Street S.W. will be closed for a deep excavation of underground utilities. The current infrastructure is in the way of the future Green Line underground tunnel, and this project will move it to a new location. BOSTON —. The MBTA suspended some Green Line trolley services and replaced them with shuttle buses on Sa